The advantages of using Manual Testing are:
- Manual testing is helpful for short term projects.
- Manual testing is cost effective as compared with Automation testing.
- It allows the tester to perform more Ad-hoc testing (random testing). More bugs are found via Ad-hoc testing than via automation. And, the more time a tester spends playing with the feature, more bugs can be found.
1. Functional Testing :
Testing of all features and functions of a system [software, hardware, etc.] to ensure requirements and specifications are met.
2. Integration Testing:
Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly (usually performed after unit and functional testing). This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. The objective is to take unit tested modules and build a program structure that has been dictated by design. In this, many tested modules are combined into sub- systems, which are then tested.The goal here is to see if the modules can be integrated properly, the emphasis being on testing the design, and module interactions.
3. System Testing:
Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components.Software is incorporated with other system elements (e.g., new hardware, and information) and a series of system integration and validation tests are conducted to fully exercise the software system.Tested in a controlled environment to validate the software systems accuracy and completeness.
4. Sanity Testing
- Sanity testing is a narrow regression testing that focused on one or a few areas of functionality.
- It is used to determine small functionalities of the application are still working after a minor change.
- It is usually unscripted i.e. done manually.
5. Smoke Testing
- Smoke testing is normal health check up to a build of an application before taking it to testing in depth.
- It is scripted – either using a written set of tests or an automated test.
6. Regression Testing
- Regression testing is done on adding or modifying functionality of application through by rerunning existing relevant tests to determine whether the changes break anything that worked prior to the change and by writing new tests where necessary.
- Adequate coverage without wasting time should be a primary consideration when conducting regression tests.
7. Performance TestingPerformance testing is used to simulate a heavy load on a server, network or object to test its strength or to analyze overall performance under different load types or under heavy concurrent load.
8. Security TestingThe Process to determine that an Information System protects data and maintains functionality as intended. The six basic security concepts available in security testing are: confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability and non-repudiation.
- Confidentiality:A security measure which protects against the disclosure of information to parties other than the intended recipient that is by no means the only way of ensuring.
- Integrity: A measure intended to allow the receiver to determine that the information which it receives has not been altered in transit or by other than the originator of the information.Integrity schemes often use some of the same underlying technologies as confidentiality schemes, but they usually involve adding additional information to a communication to form the basis of an algorithmic check rather than the encoding all of the communication
- Secure programming practice
- Authentication: A measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. Allows a receiver to have confidence that information it receives originated from a specific known source.
- Authorization: The process of determining that a requester is allowed to receive a service or perform an operation. Access control is an example of authorization.
- Availability: Assuring information and communications services will be ready for use when expected. Information must be kept available to authorized persons when they need it. Also authority to operate
- Non-repudiation: A measure intended to prevent the later denial that an action happened, or a communication that took place etc. In communication terms this often involves the interchange of authentication information combined with some form of provable time stamp.
9. Database and Mainframes Testing:
These manual testing techniques are also very important and come under E2E Testing.
End To End Testing
- End to End testing is performed to check that data is correctly received from and sent to other systems in a timely manner.
- System testing checks that changes to the system perform correctly in terms of screen checking, data retrieval etc where as E2E testing is more to do with the interfaces and databases.
- The main aim of E2E is to ensure that the information keyed in is passed down to all the appropriate downstream teams.
- While doing the E2E testing we generally do not do any kind of through screen checking and database checking. Our main aim is to complete a transaction with various possible users and cover combinations (for example) and send data to various downstream teams to verify whether data has been reached successfully or not.
- 1. V-Model for QA testing process
- 2. Two testing phases: Planning and Execution
- Detailed analysis of BRS to have requirement understanding.
- Create a Test Plan in accordance with the Test Strategy for the Project, Change or Release.
- Review Test Plan through QA based examination of the Test Plan using the most appropriate method (i.e. formal inspection, walkthrough, peer review etc.)
- Create Test Cases as per BRS (Business Requirement Specs) specifically to cover layouts, links, various functionalities of modules, etc. The preparation of individual Test Cases and Conditions that include at a minimum:-
- Any preconditions for testing
- Actions/Processes required to execute the Test
- Expected Results
- Review Test Cases through QA based examination of the Test Plan using the most appropriate method (i.e. formal inspection, walkthrough, peer review etc.)
- Time Estimation for testing phase depends on number of test cases, efforts for bug logging, bug review and bug testing, and regular free play testing.
- Execute Test Cases on different test beds and test browsers. Different test beds used are XP Client, Vista Client and Mac Client. Different browsers used are IE6, IE7, Firefox, Safari and Opera.
- Log and test bugs in case of deviation of application from BRS in bug tracking tools. And finally closes them to make application ready for release.
- Daily Tracking of Bugs, Change Requests and Test Case Execution is done to track the testing progress.
Ongoing QA processes during Testing Phase
- 1. Updating test cases regularly as per changes in the BRS.
- 2. Create scenarios and HCLM ( High Level Condition Matrix) for quick requirement coverage for small duration projects.
- 3. Traceability Matrix to track the coverage of all requirements in Test cases.
- 4. Iteration of Test Rounds is decided on the basis of application stability. Whether to perform minimum, comprehensive or detailed testing round.
- 5. Regular Smoke/Sanity Testing is performed after creation of new/existing builds.
- 6. During testing and after the release of project, CAPA process (Corrective and Preventive actions) is performed to minimize the defects.
Test Management Tools:
- Test Director: to execute manual test specifications.
- Microsoft Office Excel: to document and execute test cases by company standard templates. Also for manual performance testing. Microsoft Office Word: to document functional test plans
Open Source Tools:
- ColorPic: to test color of font on WebPages.
- MeasureIt: to test dimension on WebPages (Firefox compatible).
Bug Tracking Tools:
Bugzilla, VSTS, Microsoft Office Excel To track the status of Bugs, Change Request, Issues, queries
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